According to the natural rights philosophy, the main purpose of government is to
- create a democracy.
- protect individual rights.
- create a system of separation of powers.
- promote the rights of the ruling class.
To say that the rights of life, liberty, and property are unalienable means that they
- cannot be given up or taken away.
- belong only to citizens.
- are subject to government approval.
- are protected by the Constitution.
Which of the following statements about a constitution is most accurate?
- Governments with constitutions are limited governments.
- Some nations do not have constitutions.
- Dictatorial governments lack constitutions.
- Constitutions may be unwritten.
According to the principle of private domain, government
- must pay just compensation if it takes private property.
- may lease public lands for private purposes.
- may not interfere in certain aspects of citizens' lives.
- has no jurisdiction beyond its territorial limits.
Civic virtue is best defined as
- Giving authority to government in exchange for protection for your natural rights.
- Putting the common good above your own individual interests.
- Giving up some of your natural rights in order to create a strong government.
- Separating power among groups to maintain a balanced government.
The Founders believed that the separation of powers was important in order to
- make the government more efficient.
- allow more people to hold office.
- prevent the misuse of power.
- provide for legislative supremacy.
In comparison with the Greek and Roman ideals of civic virtue, Judeo-Christian tradition
- advocates enlightened self-interest.
- emphasizes the common good.
- stresses the dignity and worth of each individual.
- reduces the importance on individual rights.
One result of the rise of capitalism was that
- markets became more localized.
- society became more rigidly structured.
- people questioned the authority of the Church of Rome.
- people paid greater attention to their private interests.
Feudalism is important to the development of constitutional government because feudalism
- established a hierarchical class structure for society.
- introduced the idea of government based on contract.
- unleashed economic forces crucial to the development of nation-states.
- created a ruling class from which government leaders could be selected.
The Magna Carta includes the important constitutional principle that established
- freedom of religion.
- equal rights for all citizens.
- government based on the rule of law.
- the supremacy of Parliament.
The purpose of a writ of habeas corpus is to protect the individual against
- accusation of treason
- unlawful detention
- cruel and unusual punishment
In colonial America the right to vote most often depended on a person's gender and
- national origin
- social class
- property ownership
The Declaration of Independence stated the colonists' grievances against British rule as they related to
- economic opportunities
- military policy
- religious intolerance
- political authority
The idea that political power is derived from the people is called
- popular sovereignty
- judicial review
- unitary government
- executive supremacy
Most of the first state constitutions provided for supremacy of the
- executive branch
- judicial branch
- legislative branch
- national government
Some Founders believed that majority rule could be a treat to
- states' rights
- local self-government
- natural rights
- constitutional government
A major weakness of the national government under the Articles of Confederation was its
- lack of authority to regulate interstate trade.
- unequal representation of the states.
- power to violate individual rights.
- combination of executive and judicial functions in a single branch of government.
The delegates to the Philadelphia Convention were authorized to
- draft treaties governing international trade.
- write a new constitution for the nation
- amend the Articles of Confederation
- develop a plan for admitting new states to the union
In the debate over representation in Congress, the larger states generally favored
- equal representation
- proportional representation.
- bipartisan representation.
- limited representation.
According to the supremacy clause of the Constitution, "supreme law of the land" refers to
- acts of the president
- decisions of the Supreme Court
- The Constritution, federal laws, and treaties
- laws passed by state legislatures
The right of the Senate to approve or disapprove a treaty made by the president is an example of
- the "general welfare" clause
- separation of powers
- proportional representation
Why did the Framers adopt the electoral college method of choosing a president?
- They did not trust the judgement of the people.
- They were afraid the people would not vote.
- They had used that systme in the colonies.
- They modeled it after the successful British system.
The major objection to the Constitution by George Mason and other Anti-Federalists was that
- the judicial branch lacked sufficient power.
- it gave too much power to the House of Representatives
- certain actions required more than a simple majority vote.
- it failed to contain a bill of rights.
The most important goal of the Anti-Federalists was to limit the
- powers of the central government
- legislative supremacy of Congress.
- enumeration of individual rights.
- Supreme Courts' power of judicial review.
The Federalists believed that the best way to protect natural rights was to
- have a bill of rights in the Constitution.
- rely on separation of powers and checks and balances.
- provide for a highly educated people.
- allow all adult males the right to vote.
Among the important tasks facing the First Congress in 1789 was the need to
- create a system of federal courts.
- ratify the Bill of Rights.
- appoint the cabinet secretaries.
- ratify the treaty which ended the Revolutionary War.
In comparison with the executive branch as organized by the First Congress, the executive branch today has
- lost much of its original power.
- assumed more power than any other branch.
- allowed the cabinet to dominate the presidency.
- grown larger and more complex.
The Ninth Amendment was included in the Bill of Rights
- over the objections of Anti-Federalists
- to protect rights which were not specifically listed.
- so that the states could not violate individual rights.
- in an effort to reserve specific rights for the states.
The Framers believed it was necessary to preserve the "right of the people to keep and bear arms" so that
- citizens would be able to defend their liberty.
- they could avoid the expense of maintaining a standing army.
- the states would not be able to ban guns.
- citizens could be secure in their property.
The first political parties in the United States developed because of differences regarding the
- role of the president in the new nation.
- power of the federal government.
- power of the judiciary over the legislature.
- interpretation of the Bill of Rights.
Critics of judicial review claim that it conflicts with principles of
- original jurisdiction
- the supremacy clause.
- representative government.
In our federal system, the scope of the national government's authority grew significantly due to the Supreme Court's interpretation of the
- "privileges and immunities" clause
- "free exercise" clause
- "necessary and proper" clause
- "full faith and credit" clause
The Supreme Court's dicision in the Dred Scott case helped provoke the Civil War by ruling that
- Congress could not prohibit slavery in the territiories.
- states could not impose tariffs on imported goods.
- former slaves were entitled to full enjoyment of the rights of citizenship.
- federal price supports for cotton were unconstitutional.
When Southern states seceded from the Union, they justified their actions by arguing that the United States was a
- sovereign nation
- constitutional democracy
- democratic republic
- federation of sovereign states
Black Codes were passed in the Southern states to
- help African Americans find employment
- limit the newly won freedoms of former slaves
- help local governments protect African Americans
- deny state citizenship to the freed slaves.
In the decades immediately following their ratification, the Civil War Amendments did little to protect the rights of African Americans because
- freed slaves refused to support the amendments
- Reconstruction policies prohibited the amendments from taking effect
- federal officials did little to enforce the provisions of the amendments.
- several Supreme Court rulings prohibited the states from passing civil rights legislation.
The right to equal protection of the laws means that the government
- is responsible for seeing that people have the same opportunities
- may not unfairly or unreasonably treat people differently
- is responsible for ensuring that people have a decent standard of living.
- may not conduct unreasonable searches and seizures of private property.
How did the Fourteenth Amendment change the meaning of national citizenship?
- It gave the states the authority to define national citizenship.
- It made national citizenship unavailable to Confederate officials who actively rebelled against the Union.
- It defined the period of residence required to become a naturalized citizen.
- It extended the status of national citizenship to people regardless of race.
Under the separate but equal doctrine, the Supreme Court upheld laws requiring racial segregation, despite claims that such laws violated the
- "privileges and immunities" clause
- "due process" clause
- "equal protection" clause
- "commerce" clause
The leaders of the civil rights movement were significantly aided by the Constitiution's protection of
- freedom of assembly and petition
- the privileges and immunities of citizenship
- property rights
- the separate but equal doctrine
The struggle to extend voting rights to women was made especially difficult by
- constitutional provisions which prohibited women from voting.
- traditional views held by many people about the proper role of women.
- constitutional questions over whether women were citizens
- the failure of states to grant women voting rights
The decline in voter turnout or participation has resulted in
- increased influence of special interest voters
- decreased number of opportunities to vote
- increased importance of political parties
- decreased cost of conducting elections at all levels
In principle, affirmative action programs for women and minorities were designed to
- remedy the effects of past discrimination
- stop the flow of illegal immigrants to the United States
- meet the basic food and housing needs of all citizens
- stop school segregation
The free exercise clause of the First Amendment prevents government from
- favoring a particular religion over others
- establishing an official church
- interfering with the right to practice one's own religion
- providing financial aid to religious groups
The First Amendment clearly limits the powers of the
- Supreme Court
- state and local governments
Time, place, and manner restrictions on freedom of expression are generally upheld by the courts if they
- give local authorities adequate discretion to enforce them
- apply only to obscene material or libelous statements
- do not make it overly difficult for a person to share their ideas with others
- are not applied to traditional public forums such as street corners and public parks.
Which of the following situations might violate a First Amendment right?
- Police search a high school student's locker for drugs
- A state legislature passes a law prohibiting the possession of firearms
- Prisoners are not allowed to consult their attorneys
- A town council refuses to grant a permit for the Ku Klux Klan to march.
Individuals and groups that lobby government officials are exercising their
- due process rights
- right of petition
- right to counsel
- private association rights
Procedural due process is based on the idea that
- defendants' rights must be considered over the needs of society.
- systems of criminal justice must be affordable
- police officials must have necessary authority to enforce the law.
- government officials must obey the law.
Which of the following is an important characteristic of an adversarial legal system?
- Cross'examination of witnesses is conducted by the judge
- Two opposing sides present their case to an impartial judge or jury
- There are no jury trials
- Cases are presented by the actual parties, without the assistance of lawyers.
An argument in favor of the exclusionary rule is that it
- encourages the police to protect defendants' constitutional rights.
- keeps irrelevant evidence out of court hearings.
- speeds up the handling of court cases.
- promotes greater cooperation between the defense and prosecution attorneys.
The right to a fair trial provided in the Bill of Rights reflects which of the following values or interests?
- Limited government
- Popular sovereignty.
On the issue of capital punishment, the language of the Constitution appears to
- prohibit the death penalty as a cruel and unusual punishment.
- accept the legitimacy of the death penalty.
- accept depriving a person of life without due process of law
- prohibit the death penalty for any crime but murder.
A fundamental difference between citizens and resident aliens is that only citizens may
- enjoy the protections of the Bill of Rights
- engage in social and political actions
- participate in their own governance
- buy and sell real estate
Because many Americans believe that their own opportunity to succeed is related to the well-being of society, they
- act for the common good out of enlightened self-interest
- put aside civic virtue for the sake of their families
- respect and accept the opinions of elected public officials
- reject classical republicanism in favor of the natural rights philosophy.
In a constitutional democracy, citizens are expected to
- promote their individual rights without regard to the common good
- allow the government to assume responsibility for solving social problems
- ignore their own personal interests when makeing political choices
- think critically about public issues and participate in public affairs.
One of the fundamental civic principles of our nation is
- allegiance to political parties
- equality of condition
- the rule of law
- legislative supremacy
Modern technology has made which of the following theoretically possible?
- A more pluralistic society.
- A more direct form of democracy.
- A decreased reliance on the rule of law.
- A decreased need for local government.
A basic difference between the Bill of Rights and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is that the Bill of Rights.
- is enforceable by an authorized government.
- enumerates more rights
- is democratic
- is a clearer statement of rights and privileges
People who favor a policy of judicial restraint argue that the
- written opinions of judges should be as short as possible.
- number of jurors needed to hear a criminal case should be reduced
- courts have not gove far enough to limit the power of the federal government
- courts' power to intervene in executive and legislative functions should be limited.